本文标题:心肌梗塞的病因及症状是什么_[db:key1] [db:key2]。本文主要介绍心肌梗塞的病因及症状是什么内容,同时包含[db:key1] [db:key2]相关资讯。我们致力于提供最优质的!--{$article.title}-->_[db:key1] [db:key2]内容。

心肌梗塞的病因及症状是什么

心肌梗塞的病因及症状是什么

心肌梗死是指心肌的缺血性坏死,是在冠状动脉病变的基础上,冠状动脉的血流急剧减少或中断,使相应的心肌出现严重而持久地急性缺血,最终导致心肌的缺血性坏死。那心肌梗死要如何急救?

心肌梗塞的病因及症状是什么

1

心肌梗塞的病因

过劳

过重的体力劳动,尤其是负重登楼,过度体育活动,连续紧张劳累等,都可使心脏负担加重,心肌需氧量突然增加,而冠心病患者的冠状动脉已发生硬化、狭窄,不能充分扩张而造成心肌缺血。剧烈体力负荷也可诱发斑块破裂,导致急性心肌梗死。

便秘

便秘在老年人当中十分常见。临床上,因便秘时用力屏气而导致心肌梗死的老年人并不少见。必须引起老年人足够的重视,要保持大便通畅。

激动

由于激动、紧张、愤怒等激烈的情绪变化诱发。

寒冷刺激

突然的寒冷刺激可能诱发急性心肌梗死。因此,冠心病患者要十分注意防寒保暖,冬春寒冷季节是急性心肌梗死发病较高的原因之一。

暴饮暴食

不少心肌梗死病例发生于暴饮暴食之后。进食大量含高脂肪高热量的食物后,血脂浓度突然升高,导致血黏稠度增加,血小板聚集性增高。在冠状动脉狭窄的基础上形成血栓,引起急性心肌梗死。

吸烟、大量饮酒

吸烟和大量饮酒可通过诱发冠状动脉痉挛及心肌耗氧量增加而诱发急性心肌梗死。

心肌梗死症状

1、疼痛

这是最先出现的症状,疼痛部位和性质与心绞痛相同,但常发生于安静或睡眠时,疼痛程度较重,范围较广,持续时间可长达数小时或数天,休息或含用硝酸甘油片多不能缓解,病人常烦躁不安、大汗淋漓、恐惧,有濒死之感。

2、全身症状

主要是发热,伴有心动过速、白细胞增高和红细胞沉降率增快等,由坏死物质吸收所引起。一般在疼痛发生后24-48小时出现,程度与梗死范围常呈正相关,体温一般在38℃上下,很少超过39℃,持续一周左右。

3、胃肠道症状

约1/3有疼痛的病人,在发病早期伴有恶心、呕吐和上腹胀痛,与迷走神经受坏死心肌刺激和心排血量降低组织灌注不足等有关;肠胀气也不少见;重症者可发生呃逆。

4、心律失常

见于75%-95%的病人,多发生于起病后1-2周内,尤其24小时内。心电图可呈现弥漫性异常。

5、低血压和休克

疼痛期中,会导致血压下降,可持续数周后再上升,且常不能恢复以往的水平。如疼痛缓解而收缩压低于80mmHg,病人烦躁不安、面色苍白、皮肤湿冷、脉细而快、大汗淋漓、尿量减少、神志迟钝、甚至昏厥者则为休克的表现。

6、急性左心衰竭

可在起病最初数日内发生或在疼痛、休克好转阶段 出现。发生率约为20%-48%,为梗死后心脏收缩力显著减弱和顺应性降低所致。心肌梗死病人出现呼吸困难、咳嗽、紫绀、烦躁等,严重者可发生肺水肿或进 而发生右心衰竭的表现,出现颈静脉怒张、肝肿痛和水肿等。右心室心肌梗死者,一开始即可出现右心衰竭的表现。

心肌梗死要如何急救

1、病人一旦发生猝死,呼吸心跳骤停,就要立即进行心肺复苏,以挽救生命。

2、应立即打电话通知“120”或附近医疗单位,请其来人前来急救。

3、要让病人就地卧床休息,保持安静,不要乱加搬动。病人若十分烦躁,过分紧张,则可给其口服安定饕以镇静,减少心脏负担,并立即给其口含硝酸甘油1片,如无效,还可口服1片。

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